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Emperor Taizong's Campaign Against Xueyantuo


Emperor Taizong of Tang (r. 626-649), the second emperor of Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty, early in his reign, had allied with Xueyantuo, a vassal of the powerful Eastern Tujue (Goktvrk) Khanate, against Eastern Tujue, which Tang successfully defeated in 630. Upon Eastern Tujue's defeat, Xueyantuo's Zhenzhu Khan Yi'nan took over Eastern Tujue's former territory, and while he was formally submis...

The History of Hemudu


The history of the Hemudu culture is extremely important to the study of early Neolithic cultures and the origins of rice cultivation. The Hemudu culture has been dated to around 5000 BCE - 4500 BCE, with later phases dating to 3000 BCE. It emerged in the southern side of the Hangzhou River estuary in Zhejiang province in China and was one of two distinct, separated cultures that arose at t...

Incident at Xuanwu Gate: Li Shimin's killing of Li Jiancheng and Li Yuanji


In summer 626, the Eastern Tujue general Ashina Yushe (阿史那郁设) had entered Tang territory and put Wucheng (乌城, in modern Yulin, Shaanxi) under siege. Usually, Li Shimin would be sent against Eastern Tujue forces, but at Li Jiancheng's recommendation, Emperor Gaozu commissioned Li Yuanji to do so, and the troops under Li Shimin were transferred to Li Yuanji. Li Shimin, fearful that Li Jiancheng ...

Guan Yu - The Saint of Force


Guan Yu, whose date of birth was unknown and who died in the year 220, was a prominent general of the Shu Kingdom in the Three Kingdoms Period. The last years of the Eastern Han Dynasty witnessed a chaotic social order and the fighting of various military forces with one another. The three heroes Guan Yu, Zhang Fei and Liu Bei swore brotherhood and joined the political and military fights....

Background of the Battle of Yongqiu


An Lushan had enjoyed many successes early on in his revolution. His army numbered more than 160,000, and was growing rapidly. In the fall of 755, An Lushan won a major victory at Luoyang, the eastern capital of the Tang Dynasty. And with civilians losing faith in the Tang Dynasty, and more people and generals joining An Lushan's New Great Yan Dynasty every day, it seemed that the Tang Dynasty...

Huang Chao Rebellion - Leading to the Downfall of Tang Dynasty


The reign of Emperor Xizong of Tang was struck by natural disasters, which led to famines, the effects of which were exacerbated by a heavy tax burden. In 874, the Wang Xianzhi rebellion broke out, followed in 875 by the infamous Huang Chao rebellion that would haunt Xizong's reign for the next decade. Operating between the Yellow River and the Yangzi until 878, Chao then turned south and sack...

Powerful Empresses in Chinese History


Empress Dou Yi of the Western Han Dynasty Empress Dou (d. 135 BC), formally known as Empress Xiaowen, was the wife of Emperor Wen of the Western Han Dynasty (dates) and mother of Emperor Jing. She greatly influenced the reigns of her husband and her son with her adherence to Taoist philosophy. She contributed much to the peaceful rule of Emperors Wen and Jing, commonly viewed as one of the ...

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